References to Time in Lefebvre’s Production of Space


***– nietzsche: 22
— abstract space: 49
— passivity of time: 50
— rediscover time through space: 91
— time thru space: 95
— expulsion of time thru modernity: 96
— reducing time to variable: 108
— genesis: space v time: 130
— bergsonian/neitzschean coconstitution bs: 181
***– spatial control of time: 218-219
— ritual time “orienting” or “punctuating” space: 267-268
— industrialization of time: 277-278
— critique of hegelianism, which sees state as master of space: 279-285
— dialectics = time: 292
— reduction of time to space: 296-300
— Marx’s reduction of time in political economy: 322-326
— echoes of Marx’s reduction: 331, 333
***– capital’s visualization of time through commodities: 337-340
— appropriation as time: 356
— time as resistance: 393
— finitude: 409
— temporality of knowledge: 414
— time’s “trial by space”: 416-418
Lefebvre’s argument in this book is that the production of space holds a unique power in capitalist modernity. This argument can work in union with Debord’s (Hegelian) position that time is capital’s primary means of control. Lefebvre claims that space is prior to time in capital (space controls time), but this claim promises a possible synthetic reading, especially given Lefebvre’s insistence that time/space work side-by-side even if one is used to dominate the other. Using a Lefebvre/Debord synthesis, Q: what modalities of space, time, and space-time does modernist capital deploy? Lefebvre’s answer: the accumulation of space enables time to be made into an abstraction by making it visual – such space may even be “differential” but results in social homogenization.

Additional thoughts: Lefebvre includes elements of Bergson and Heidegger that allow him to diverge from certain Hegelian constructions. Q: to what extent does Deleuze’s bergsonism alter the political prescriptions of Lefebvre (altering space is the solution) and Debord (releasing capital’s hold on time is the solution)?

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